Migration, Transnational Crime and Terrorism: Exploring the Nexus in Europe and Southeast Asia
Perspectives on Terrorism
Theories of a crime-terror nexus are well established in the literature. Often conceptualized along a continuum, relationships between organizations range from contracting services and the appropriation of tactics, to complete mergers or even role changes. Recent irregular migrant movements have added to the nexus, providing financial opportunities to criminal enterprises and creating grievances and heated debate that has fueled the anger of ideological groups. In Europe, terrorist organizations have worked with and sometimes emulated organized crime syndicates through involvement in the trafficking of drugs, people, weapons and antiquities. In Southeast Asia, conflict areas provide the backdrop for cross-border drug trafficking and kidnap-for-ransom activities, while extremist groups both commit crimes for profit and target criminals for recruitment.