The African warlord revisited
Small Wars & Insurgencies
To date, warlordism in Africa has been viewed solely negatively. This has come about, in part, because of the analytical lenses that have been used. Typically, warlordism has been examined at the state level; and behavioural traits, rather than definitionally necessary components, have been the focus. In effect, 'warlord' has been confused with other violent actors. I suggest here a reconceptualisation 'from below', which takes into account variation in types of warlordism, and which allows for both positive and negative effects of warlordism on society and the state.